Femtocell is a low power, low cost, user installed small device which connects the mobile user to its core network directly by using the fiber optics or broadband connection to improve the coverage of mobile network inside home/offices. Femtocell is a best solution to improve coverage of mobile communication at indoors particularly. There are lots of challenges for implementing femtocell in real world. In this book, location management problem has been solved which is a basic problem in any mobile communication and tried to find out how, one can take advantage of femtocells technology in Green Technology which is a technology in which power consumption of any device or machine should be less but efficiency should be more compare to its old type. Hence, Femtocell is best suitable in Green Technology. Technique to reduce femtocells interference compared to macrocell is implemented as they both transmit the same frequencies and that's why a new mechanism of uplink power control for two-tier femtocells has been implemented in two tier CDMA network. Interference Analysis for femtocell Deployment in OFDMA Systems based on FFR (Fractional Frequency Reuse) is also covered in this book.
Rapid urbanization started since early 1950s. Among numerous consequences of urbanization are change in landuse and land cover including deforestation, encroachment of prime farmland, and alterations in landscape. These consequences reduce the ecosystem carbon stocks especially in biota and soils, alter the hydrologic cycle by increasing runoff and decreasing soil water storage, change energy budget by altering albedo, and disrupt cycling of carbon and other elements. Such drastic alterations in land use and land cover and biogeochemical cycling of C and other elements affect global climate at local, regional and global scales because of drastic and irreversible changes in the structure, functions and dynamics of ecosystems. The global urban expansion rate is estimated at ~2 million ha (Mha) of additional land to accommodate annual population growth of 70 to 80 millions. Because urban areas consist of build up areas and green areas or free space, judicious management of free space is crucial to moderating the global carbon cycle. Open spaces can be sustainably managed for home lawns, sports grounds, recreational areas, forests, and urban agriculture. Green roofs are also important in influencing the albedo and the carbon and hydrologic cycles. The strategy is to increase the green space areas, enhance their net primary productivity, and increase the overall carbon budget of urban ecosystems. It is also important to link science with policy. Urbanization drastically alters the ecosystems structure and functions, disrupts cycling of C and other elements along with water. It alters the energy balance and influences climate at local, regional and global scales. In 2008, urban population exceeded the rural population. In 2050, 70% of the world population will live in urban centers. The number of megacities (10 million inhabitants) increased from three in 1975 to 19 in 2007, and is projected to be 27 in 2025. Rapid urbanization is altering the ecosystem C budget. Yet, urban ecosystems have a large C sink capacity in soils and biota. Judicious planning and effective management can enhance C pool in urban ecosystems, and off-set some of the anthropogenic emissions. Principal components with regards to C sequestration include home lawns and turfs, urban forests, green roofs, park and recreational/sports facilities and urban agriculture.
The objective of GCN 2011 is to facilitate an exchange of information on best practices for the latest research advances in the area of green communications and networks, which mainly includes the intelligent control, or efficient management, or optimal design of access network infrastructures, home networks, terminal equipment, and etc. Topics of interests include network design methodology, enabling technologies, network components and devices, applications, others and emerging new topics.
Mobile Persuasion Design presents five conceptual design projects (or 'Machines') for new mobile applications (smartphone or tablet with Web portals) that combine theories of persuasion and information design to change people's behavior. The Green Machine persuades home consumers to save energy. The Health Machine persuades people to change nutrition and exercise habits, so as to avoid obesity/diabetes. The Money Machine persuades baby boomers to improve wealth management and to spend and save appropriately. The Story Machine persuades family members to share more inter-generational stories among families that are geographically distributed and asynchronous, sometimes across multiple countries and cultures. The Innovation Machine persuades entrepreneurs to practice good design-thinking and adopt innovation practices. The Machines have been published worldwide since 2009. In 2011, the Green, Health, and Money Machines won design awards in an international competition hosted by the International Institute for Information Design, Vienna.
Woody wetlands constitute a relatively small but extremely important part of the landscape in the southwestern United States. These riparian habitats support more than one-third of the region's vascular plant species, are home to a variety of wildlife, and provide essential havens for dozens of migratory animals. Because of their limited size and disproportionately high biological value, the goal of protecting wetland environments frequently takes priority over nearly all other habitat types. In The Ribbon of Green, hydrologists Robert H. Webb, and Stanley A. Leake and botanist Raymond M. Turner examine the factors that affect the stability of woody riparian vegetation, one of the largest components of riparian areas. Such factors include the diversion of surface water, flood control, and the excessive use of groundwater. Combining repeat photography with historical context and information on species composition, they document more than 140 years of change. Contrary to the common assumption of widespread losses of this type of ecosystem, the authors show that vegetation has increased on many river reaches as a result of flood control, favorable climatic conditions, and large winter floods that encourage ecosystem disturbance, germination, and the establishment of species in newly generated openings. Bringing well-documented and accessible insights to the ecological study of wetlands, this book will influence our perception of change in riparian ecosystems and how riparian restoration is practiced in the Southwest, and it will serve as an important reference in courses on plant ecology, riparian ecology, and ecosystem management.
Urbanization drastically alters the ecosystems structure and functions, disrupts cycling of C and other elements along with water. It alters the energy balance and influences climate at local, regional and global scales. In 2008, urban population exceeded the rural population. In 2050, 70% of the world population will live in urban centers. The number of megacities (10 million inhabitants) increased from three in 1975 to 19 in 2007, and is projected to be 27 in 2025. Rapid urbanization is altering the ecosystem C budget. Yet, urban ecosystems have a large C sink capacity in soils and biota. Judicious planning and effective management can enhance C pool in urban ecosystems, and off-set some of the anthropogenic emissions. Principal components with regards to C sequestration include home lawns and turfs, urban forests, green roofs, park and recreational/sports facilities and urban agriculture.
It's Not About Politics. It's About Caring--And What Every Family Can Do! Written by a passionately concerned couple--David Seligman is an active duty U.S. serviceman and Melissa is a devoted stay-at-home mom--this is the first book about going green that won't scare you with statistics, overwhelm you with science, or make you feel guilty about your SUV. Instead, this indispensable guide will help families everywhere to take simple, practical steps, to lower their energy consumption and help create a healthier planet--and a more sustainable lifestyle. Simply Green takes a fresh look at every part of your household and every aspect of your life, from what you teach your children to what you put in your laundry machines. Full of energy-saving and money-saving 'Green Tips,' Simply Green shows how to: &#8226; Use recycled water around your house and garden &#8226; Heat and cool your home while you lower your energy bill &#8226; Throw away less trash &#8226; Make your own, environmentally-friendly cleaning solutions &#8226; Lower the power usage of your appliances &#8226; Choose indoor houseplants that help purify the air &#8226; Make green awareness an active part of your family's life--and have more fun in the natural world &#8226; And much more! Filled with dozens of useful resources, surprising facts and a long list of options for 'going green,' Simply Green is for those of us who may not be able to afford to make huge changes--but can't not afford to do what we can. *Printed on recycled paper. Melissa and David Seligman run their Tennessee home using their 'simply green' principles. David has a degree in natural resource conservation and management with an emphasis in environmental policy. He has worked as an environmental educator for Lexington Parks and Recreation and does GIS-related work for the U.S. Army. Melissa is the author of The Day After He Left for Iraq, and her work has appeared in The Lexington Herald-Leader newspaper. They live in Memphis.
The end of the Ice Age: A time of melting glaciers, mass extinctions, unpredictable dangers&#8230;and young heroes Though only twelve summers old, Twig is a talented Dreamer. Sometimes she has spirit dreams&#8212;dreams that come true. But her mother has always discouraged Twig from exploring her powers for fear that they would turn her strange, like the reclusive witch-woman Cobia. When Twig begins to have recurring nightmares about a green light exploding from the sky and causing widespread destruction, she must find the courage to defy her mother and learn to become a Spirit Dreamer. Helping Twig on her quest are her best friend, Greyhawk, and Screech Owl, a shaman who has been banished from the village. Together, they must persuade their people to leave the land of their ancestors and journey to the mysterious Duskland, far from only home they&#8217;ve ever known. Can Twig convince the Elders that she is a true Spirit Dreamer&#8212;before it&#8217;s too late? Set 13,000 years ago in what is now the northeastern United States and Ontario, Canada, Children of the Dawnland is an unforgettable adventure about a visionary girl by internationally-bestselling authors and archaeologists Kathleen O&#8217;Neal Gear and W. Michael Gear. In writing and researching this book, the Gears visited the archaeological sites in New York, Ontario, Ohio, and Pennsylvania that play a role in the story. By allowing us to see through the eyes of prehistoric cultures, the Gears hope we can learn from them at a time of similar environmental change. At the publisher's request, this title is being sold without Digital Rights Management software (DRM) applied.
Read the review at MLB.com The Green Monster. Pesky's Pole. The Lone Red Seat. Yawkey Way. To baseball fans this list of bizarre phrases evokes only one place: Fenway Park, home of the Boston Red Sox. Built in 1912, Fenway Park is Americas oldest major league ballpark still in use. In Faithful to Fenway, Michael Ian Borer takes us out to Fenway where we sit in cramped wooden seats (often with obstructed views of the playing field), where there is a hand-operated scoreboard and an average attendance of 20,000 fewer fans than most stadiums, and where every game has been sold out since May of 2003. There is no Hard Rock Café (like Toronto's Skydome), no swimming pool (like Arizona's Chase Field), and definitely no sushi (which has become a fan favorite from Baltimore to Seattle). As Borer tells us in this captivating book, Fenway is short on comfort but long on character. Faithful to Fenway investigates the mystique of the ballpark. Borer, who lived in Boston before and after the Red Sox historic 2004 World Series win, draws on interviews with Red Sox players, including Jason Varitek and Carl Yastrzemski, management, including Larry Lucchino and John Henry, groundskeepers, vendors, and scores of fans to uncover what the park means for Boston and the people who revere it. Borer argues that Fenway is nothing less than a national icon, more than worthy of the banner outside the stadium that proclaims, 'America's Most Beloved Ballpark&#8221;. Certainly as one of New England's greatest landmarks, Fenway captures the hearts and imaginations of a deferential and devoted public. There are T-shirts, bumper stickers, banners, and snow globes that honor the ballpark. Fenway shows up in popular films, novels, television commercials, and in replicated form in people's backyards-and coming in 2008 to Quincy, Massachusetts, is Mini-Fenway Park, a replica stadium built especially for kids. Full of legendary stories, amusing anecdotes, and the shared triumph and tragedy of the Red Sox and their fans, Faithful to Fenway offers a fresh and insightful perspective, offering readers an unforgettable pilgrimage to the mecca of baseball.